PREGNANCY SYMPTOMS

Pregnancy symptoms differ from woman to woman and pregnancy to pregnancy; however, one of the most significant pregnancy symptoms is a delayed or missed menstrual cycle.

Understanding the signs and symptoms of pregnancy is important because each symptom may be related to something other than pregnancy. Some women experience signs or symptoms of pregnancy within a week of conception. For other women, pregnancy symptoms may develop over a few weeks or may not be present at all.

If you have missed at least one period, you may be pregnant. The other signs of early pregnancy can be nausea and/or vomiting, tender and enlarged breasts, frequent urination, fatigue and increased vaginal discharge.

  • Some women have a craving for certain foods and/or an increased appetite.
  • The ligaments in your pelvis get softer and more stretchy.
  • The amount of blood circulating in your body increases, making your heart and lungs work harder.
  • You may get tired with activity more than usual.

The only sure way to know is by having a pregnancy test or pelvic exam. At any of our local pregnancy resource centers, you can find free and confidential pregnancy tests, access to local centers in or near your home town where you can receive a free pregnancy test and free limited ultrasound to verify your pregnancy.

Learn more about your menstrual cycle and ovulation

Below is a listing of some of the most common pregnancy signs and symptoms. If you have been sexually active and are experiencing any of the following symptoms, it is important to take a pregnancy test.

Implantation Bleeding:


Implantation bleeding can be one of the earliest pregnancy symptoms. About 6-12 days after conception, the embryo implants itself into the uterine wall. Some women will experience spotting as well as some cramping.

Other Explanations:

Actual menstruation, altered menstruation, changes in birth control pill, infection, or abrasion from intercourse.

Delay/Difference in Menstruation:


A delayed or missed period is the most common pregnancy symptom leading a woman to test for pregnancy. When you become pregnant, your next period should be missed. Many women can bleed while they are pregnant, but typically the bleeding will be shorter or lighter than a normal period.

Other Explanations:

Excessive weight gain/loss, fatigue, hormonal problems, tension, stress, ceasing to take the birth control pill, illness or breastfeeding.

Swollen/Tender Breasts:


Swollen or tender breasts is a pregnancy symptom which may begin as early as 1-2 weeks after conception. Women may notice changes in their breasts; they may be tender to the touch, sore, or swollen.

Other Explanations:

Hormonal imbalance, birth control pills, impending menstruation (PMS) can also cause your breasts to be swollen or tender.

[toggle title="Fatigue/Tiredness:"]
Feeling fatigued or more tired is a pregnancy symptom which can also start as early as the first week after conception.

Other Explanations:


Stress, exhaustion, depression, common cold or flu, or other illnesses can also leave you feeling tired or fatigued.

Nausea/Morning Sickness:


This well known pregnancy symptom will often show up between 2-8 weeks after conception. Some women are fortunate to not deal with morning sickness at all, while others will feel nauseous throughout most of their pregnancy.

Other Explanations:

Food poisoning, stress, change in hormonal birth control method or other stomach disorders can also cause you to feel queasy.

Backaches:


Lower backaches may be a symptom that occurs early in pregnancy; however, it is common to experience a dull backache throughout pregnancy.

Other Explanations:

Impending menstruation, stress, other back problems, and physical or mental strains.

Headaches:


The sudden rise of hormones in your body can cause you to have headaches early in pregnancy.

Frequent Urination:


Around 6-8 weeks after conception, you may find yourself making a few extra trips to the bathroom.

Other Explanations


Urinary tract infection, diabetes, increasing liquid intake, or taking excessive diuretics.

[toggle title="Darkening of Areolas:"]
If you are pregnant, the skin around your nipples may get darker.

”Other

[toggle title="Food Cravings or Food Aversions:"]
While you may not have a strong desire to eat pickles and ice cream, many women will feel cravings for certain foods when they are pregnant. This can last throughout your entire pregnancy. Some women develop adversions to certain types of food early in pregnancy and this too can last for the next 9 months.

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ABOUT SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE

How common are STIs?
According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), over 70 million Americans currently have a Sexually Transmitted Disease or STI. There are 19 million new cases that occur each year, with half of these in people under the age of 25.

What causes STIs?
Certain STIs, like Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis are caused by bacteria. Others, like HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, herpes, and HPV, are caused by viruses. And the trichomoniasis infections is actually caused by a parasite. The two most common STIs (according to the CDC) are Chlamydia and HPV.

How do you get them?
You get STIs during sexual activity. This includes vaginal sex, oral sex and anal sex. A few—herpes and HPV—can even be spread by contact with infected skin. HIV and hepatitis can also be spread through needle-sharing. You can get an STI from a person who has no symptoms.

What are the symptoms?
Most STIs have no symptoms, yet they can still pass on the infection. Some symptoms may include abnormal discharge from the penis or vagina, burning sensation when urinating, and abdominal pain. You may also notice a rash, ulcer, or wart.

What are the complications?
In women, complications from STIs include pelvic inflammatory disease (which can lead to infertility); tubal pregnancy; cervical cancer; and can even be life-threatening. In pregnant women, STIs can lead to miscarriage, stillbirths, preterm delivery and birth defects. In men, HPV infections can cause penile cancer and HIV can be life-threatening.

How can you find out if you have one?
Because most STIs have no symptoms, usually they are not detected until complications develop. If you or your partner have had more than one sex partner or have ever injected drugs, talk to your doctor about getting tested. You can also visit www.stdwizard.com and take a confidential quiz to see what STIs you might need to be tested for.

Can they be treated?
Most bacterial STIs can be treated and cured with antibiotics. Treatment, however, does not guarantee that complications have not already occurred. Most viral STIs can be treated for symptoms, but not cured. Vaccine research on STIs is ongoing. Vaccination for hepatitis B is effective and widely available. A new HPV vaccine, Gardasil, is available for young women, however it does not protect against all types of HPV that cause cancer and warts and how long it works is also unknown. You should discuss all vaccinations with your doctor.

Can they be prevented?
Yes! Avoid all sexual activity until you are in a committed, monogamous relationship (such as marriage) and remain faithful to that (uninfected) partner for life. This is the only way to avoid the risk of an infection.

Sex is a big deal. Know the facts. Make an informed decision. Know you are worth waiting for.

Reference: Information on this page gathered from referenced and reviewed articles on “The Medical Institute” website
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iT’S YOUR CHOICE

It is Your Choice: To Abort-Adopt-or Birth! What is Your Choice?

Please contact us before you make your choice. We are here to help you sort through all of your questions and concerns. There is a lot to educate yourself on before you make a decision, and we are here to help you every step of the way.

WHAT IS ABORTION?

Roe (P), a pregnant single woman, brought a class action suit challenging the constitutionality of the Texas abortion laws. These laws made it a crime to obtain or attempt an abortion except on medical advice to save the life of the mother.

Other plaintiffs in the lawsuit included Hallford, a doctor who faced criminal prosecution for violating the state abortion laws; and the Does, a married couple with no children, who sought an injunction against enforcement of the laws on the grounds that they were unconstitutional. The defendant was county District Attorney Wade (D).

Think you might be pregnant?”
If you think you might be pregnant you may be experiencing a range of emotions. Many questions may be running through your mind. It’s natural for women to have many questions about pregnancy. Pregnancy is a big event in a woman’s life.

Common symptoms of pregnancy
Symptoms may include a late or missed period, tender or swollen breasts, frequent urination, fatigue, and nausea. The first step to take to see if you might be pregnant is to take a pregnancy test. We offer free pregnancy testing with a nurse and use only the most accurate urine pregnancy tests. If your test is positive we can confirm the viability of your pregnancy with an ultrasound.

Our caring medical staff can answer your questions.
The questions we hear most often are about avoiding a pregnancy, the abortion pill, pre-pregnancy health, options for an unintended pregnancy, prenatal care, the accuracy of pregnancy tests, miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy. Whatever your question, we have a staff member that can help. Your health is important to us.

Here a List of Common Types of Abortions

Chemical Abortion/RU486 – Takes three office visits. Pills given at first abortion clinic visit kill the embryo. A day or two later at second visit, a medication is given to start cramping and expulsion of embryo, yolk sac, and placental tissue. Third visit to clinic is after “at home” abortion to check if abortion is complete. If not, surgical abortion is necessary to complete abortion. RU486 can result in serious injury, requiring hospitalization, and in rare cases can result in death. An abortion will not terminate an ectopic pregnancy.

Manual Vacuum Aspiration – Abortionist dilates the cervix. A long, thin tube is inserted through cervical canal into the uterus. A large syringe is attached to the tube and the tiny baby called an embryo (means growing within) is suctioned out.

Suction Curettage – The cervix must be stretched open by abortionist using metal rods or laminaria inserted the day before. The doctor inserts a hard plastic tube into the uterus, and then connects this tube to a very powerful suction machine to remove the fetus (meaning little one or unborn offspring) from the uterus. Then, the uterus is scraped with a sharp rounded blade to remove any remaining placental tissue.

Dilation and Evacuation (D&E) – When the fetus is too large the cervix must be opened wider. This is done by inserting numerous thin rods made of seaweed (called laminaria) a day or two before the abortion. A sharp tool is inserted into the uterus and the fetus is dismembered, skull crushed, parts removed, and uterus suctioned.

Late Term Abortion – Typically takes place over three days and is associated with increased risk to life and health of the mother. Along clamp tool is inserted through the dilated cervix. The Fetus is then torn apart and removed.

Considering Abortion: Explore All Your Options

We are available to discuss your options, listen to your concerns and answer your questions. Contact us to share your thoughts, concerns, and feelings about what you are going through. Read about your options:

•Abortion
•Parenting
•Adoption

Abortion Procedures and Risks
It may seem like abortion will wipe away this situation and you can just move on. It’s not that simple. Abortion is not just a simple medical procedure. For many women, it is a life-changing event with significant physical, emotional, and spiritual consequences. Most women who struggle with past abortions say that they wish they had been told all of the facts about abortion and its risks.

Abortion Procedures
First Trimester Aspiration Abortion between 4-13 weeks after last menstrual period (LMP)
This surgical abortion is done throughout the first trimester. Depending on the provider and the cost, varying degrees of pain control are offered to range from local anesthetic to full general anesthesia. For very early pregnancies (4-7 weeks LMP), local anesthesia is usually given. Then a long, thin tube is inserted into the uterus. A large syringe is attached to the tube and the embryo is suctioned out.

Towards the end of the first trimester, the cervix needs to be opened wider to complete the procedure because the fetus is larger. This may require a two-day process where medications are placed in the vagina, or a thin rod made of seaweed is inserted into the cervix to gradually soften and open the cervix overnight. The day of the procedure, the doctor may need to further stretch open the cervix using metal rods. This is usually painful so local or general anesthesia is typically needed. Next, the doctor inserts a plastic tube into the uterus and then applies suction. Either electric or manual suction machines are commonly used. Manual Vacuum Aspirators (MVA) are becoming more popular in the U.S. The suction pulls the fetus’ body apart and out of the uterus. The doctor may also use a loop-shaped tool called a curette to scrape the fetus and fetal parts out of the uterus. (The doctor may refer to the fetus and fetal parts as the “products of conception.”)[1, 2, 3, 4]

Dilation and Evacuation (D&E): between 13 to 24 weeks after LMP
This surgical abortion is done during the second trimester of pregnancy. In this procedure, the cervix must be opened wider than in a first-trimester abortion because the fetus is larger. This is done by inserting numerous thin rods made of seaweed into the cervix a day or two before the abortion. Sometimes, other oral or vaginal medications are used to further soften the cervix. The day of the procedure, after anesthesia is given (local or general), the cervix is further stretched open using metal rods. Until about 16 weeks gestation, the procedure starts with a plastic tube inserted through the cervical opening and suction is applied. The suction pulls the fetus’ body apart and out of the uterus, any remaining fetal parts are removed with a grasping tool (forceps). A sharp tool (called a curette) may also be used to remove any remaining tissue.

After 16 weeks, much of the procedure is done with forceps to pull fetal parts out through the cervical opening. The doctor keeps track of what fetal parts have been removed so that none are left inside to potentially cause infection. Lastly, a curette, and/or the suction machine is used to remove any remaining tissue or blood clot ensuring the uterus is empty.[5, 6, 7]

Dilation and Evacuation (D & E) After Potential Viability: about 24 weeks and up
When the abortion is done at a point when a live birth is possible, injections are given to cause fetal death. This is done in order to comply with the federal law which requires that the fetus be dead before complete removal from the mother’s body. The medications (digoxin and potassium chloride) are either injected into the amniotic fluid, the umbilical cord or directly into the fetus’ heart. The remainder of the procedure is the same as described above.

An alternate technique called “Intact D and E” may also be used. The goal of this procedure is to remove the fetus in one piece thus reducing the risk of leaving parts behind to cause infection, among other things. This procedure requires the cervix to be open even further by inserting the seaweed rods in the cervix two or more days prior to the abortion. Often it is necessary to crush the fetus’ skull for removal as it is difficult to dilate the cervix enough to bring the head out intact.[8, 9, 10]

Medication Abortion RU486 (Abortion Pill)
This drug is only approved by the Food & Drug Administration for use in women up to the 49th day after their last menstrual period; however, it is commonly used “off label” up to 63 days. This procedure usually requires three office visits. On the first visit, the woman is given pills to cause the death of the fetus. Two days later, if the fetus has not been expelled from her body, the woman is given a second drug (misoprostol) to accomplish this. One to two weeks later, an evaluation is done to determine if the procedure has been completed.[11, 12]

RU486 will not work in the case of an ectopic pregnancy. This is a potentially life-threatening condition in which the embryo lodges outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube.[13, 14]

If an ectopic pregnancy is not diagnosed early, the tube may burst, causing internal bleeding and in some cases, the death of the woman.

Medical Methods for Second Trimester Induced Abortion
This technique involves the termination of pregnancy by the stimulation of labor-like contractions that cause eventual expulsion of the fetus and placenta from the uterus. Like labor at full term, this procedure typically involves 10-24 hours in the hospital labor and delivery unit. Digoxin or potassium chloride is injected into the amniotic fluid, or umbilical cord or fetal heart prior to the procedure in order to avoid the delivery of a live baby. The cervix may be softened either with the use of seaweed sticks, or medications at the start of the procedure. Various combinations of oral mifepristone and oral or vaginal misoprostol are the medications of choice for midtrimester pregnancy terminations. These medications cause the pregnancy to detach from the uterus and the uterus to contract and expel the fetus and placenta, in most cases. Throughout the procedure, the patient may receive oral or intravenous pain medications. Occasionally, a scraping of the uterus is needed to remove the placenta. Potential complications include hemorrhage and the need for a blood transfusion, retained placenta and uterine rupture.[15]

Consider the Immediate Risks of Induced Abortion
Physical Risks
Abortion carries the risk of significant complications such as bleeding, infection, and damage to organs. Serious medical complications occur infrequently in early abortions but increase with later abortions [16, 17]. Getting complete information on the risks associated with abortion is limited due to incomplete reporting and the lack of record-keeping linking abortions to complications. The information that is available reports the following risks.

BLEEDING
Some bleeding after abortion is normal. However, if the cervix is torn or the uterus is punctured, there is a risk of severe bleeding known as hemorrhaging.[18, 19, 20] When this happens, a blood transfusion may be required. Severe bleeding is also a risk with the use of the abortion pill: one in 100 women require surgery to stop the bleeding.[21]

INFECTION
Infection can develop from the insertion of medical instruments into the uterus, or from fetal body parts that are mistakenly left inside (known as an incomplete abortion). This may cause bleeding and a pelvic infection requiring antibiotics and a repeat abortion to fully empty the uterus.[22, 23] Infection may cause scarring of the pelvic organs.[24, 25] Use of the abortion pill has resulted in the death of a number of women due to sepsis (total body infection).[26, 27]

DAMAGE TO ORGANS
The cervix and/or uterus may be cut, torn, or damaged by abortion instruments. This may cause excessive bleeding requiring surgical repair.[28] Curettes and other abortion instruments may cause permanent scarring of the uterine lining.[29] The risk of these types of complications increases with the length of the pregnancy. If complications occur, major surgery may be required, including removal of the uterus (known as a hysterectomy).[30] If the uterus is punctured or torn, there is also a risk that damage may occur to nearby organs such as the bowel and bladder.[31]

DEATH
In extreme cases, complications from abortion (excessive bleeding, infection, organ damage from a perforated uterus, and adverse reactions to anesthesia) may lead to death.[32, 33] This complication is considered rare by some. However, the last thing abortion centers want is to have the ambulance come to their door to pick up a dead woman after a legal abortion. But, it happens too many times. (for more info, see: The Blackman Wall project)

Consider Long-Term Risks of Induced Abortion
Finding out the real risks of abortion can be difficult. Women should be given comprehensive information before going through a procedure or taking a medicine that could have lifelong effects on health. Doctors should obtain informed consent before doing a medical procedure. Consider the following as you make your decision:

Abortion and Preterm Birth
Women who undergo one or more induced abortions carry a significantly increased risk of delivering prematurely in the future. Premature delivery is associated with higher rates of cerebral palsy, as well as other complications of prematurity (brain, respiratory, bowel, and eye problems).[34, 35, 36, 37]

Abortion and Breast Cancer
Medical experts continue to debate the association between abortion and breast cancer. Did you know that carrying a pregnancy to full term gives a measure of protection against breast cancer? Terminating a pregnancy will result in the loss or diminishment of that protection.[38, 39]

Despite the controversy around this issue, it is important for women to know what some experts say: a number of reliable studies have demonstrated the connection between abortion and later development of breast cancer.[40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45]

For more information regarding this potential risk, contact Option Line.

Emotional and Psychological Impact
Following abortion, many women experience initial relief. The perceived crisis is over and life returns to normal. For many women, however, the crisis isn’t over. Months and even years later, significant problems develop. There is evidence that abortion is associated with a decrease in both emotional and physical health, long term.[46] Many studies have shown abortion to be connected to:

•Clinical Depression [47, 48, 49]
•Drug and Alcohol Abuse [50, 51]
•Post-traumatic Stress Disorder [52, 53]
•Suicide [54, 55, 56, 57, 58]

Women who have experienced abortion may develop the following symptoms:
•Guilt, Grief, Anger, Anxiety, Depression, Suicidal Thoughts
•Difficulty Bonding with Partner or Children
•Eating Disorders

If you or someone you know is experiencing these symptoms, most pregnancy resource centers offer confidential, compassionate support groups designed to help women work through these feelings. You are not alone.

Spiritual Consequences
People have different understandings of God. Whatever your present beliefs may be, there is a spiritual side to abortion that deserves to be considered. We are here to talk with you about any concerns you may have.

Parenting
Choosing to continue your pregnancy and to parent can be challenging. With the support of caring people, parenting classes, and other resources, many women find the help they need to make this choice. We offer free services designed to assist you in your parenting decision.

Adoption
Each year more than 50,000 American women lovingly place their baby in an adoptive home. This decision is often made by women who first thought abortion was their only way out. Adoption can be a loving option for birth mother, baby and adoptive family. Contact us to discuss your options.

Note:Centers listed on this site offer consultations and accurate information about all pregnancy options; however, they do not offer or refer for abortion services. The information presented on this website is intended for general education purposes only and should not be relied upon as a substitute for professional and/or medical advice.

REFERENCES
1. Paul M, Lichtenberg E S, Borgatta L, Grimes DA, Stubblefield PG, Creinin MD, Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancy, Comprehensive Abortion Care; 2009 Wiley-Blackwell.

2. Induced Abortion. ACOG Patient Education Pamphlet, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. June 2007.

3. Rock J, Thompson J. TeLinde’s Operative Gynecology, 8th edition, Lippincott-Raven, 1997.

4. Stenchever M, et al. Comprehensive Gynecology, 4th edition, Mosby, Inc., 2001.

5. Paul M, Lichtenberg Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancy, Comprehensive Abortion Care

6. Fox MC, et al. Cervical Preparation for Second Trimester Surgical Abortion Prior to 20 Weeks. Contraception 2007; 76(6):486-95

7. Rock J, Thompson J. TeLinde’s Operative Gynecology

8. Paul M, Lichtenberg Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancy, Comprehensive Abortion Care

9. Boulder Abortion Clinic, P.C.; http:www.drhern.com/medicalprocedures.asp; (Accessed June 16, 2008)

10. Pasquini L, et al. Intracardiac injection of potassium chloride as method for feticide: experience from a single UK tertiary centre. British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2008; 115(4):528-31.

11. Mifeprex (mifepristone) Information. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, http://www.fda.gov/cder/drug/infopage/mifepristone/ (Accessed June 16, 2008).

12. Mifeprex Package Insert (U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved label), July 2005.

13. Gary M, Harrison D. Analysis of severe adverse events related to the use of Mifepristone as an abortifacient. The Annals of Pharmacology 2006; 40.

14. Medical Management of Abortion. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 67. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists October 2005.

15. Paul M, Lichtenberg Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancy, Comprehensive Abortion Care

16. Medical Management of Abortion. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 67

17. Katz Comprehensive Gynecology, 5th Edition, 2007 Mosby-Elsevier

18. Katz Comprehensive Gynecology, 5th Edition, 2007 Mosby-Elsevier

19. Rock, J and Thompson J; TeLinde’s Operative Gynecology, 1997; 8th edition Lippincott-Raven

20. Stenchever, et al. Comprehensive Gynecology. 2001, 4th edition, Mosby, Inc

21. Mifeprex Package Insert FDA-approved label, July 2005.

22. Katz Comprehensive Gynecology, 5th Edition, 2007 Mosby-Elsevier

23. Stenchever, et al. Comprehensive Gynecology. 2001, 4th edition, Mosby, Inc

24. ACOG Practice Bulletin, Antibiotic Prohyllaxis for Gynecologic Procedures”; No. 74, July 2006

25. Dilatation and Curettage. ACOG Patient Education Pamphlet. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists December 2005

26. ACOG Practice Bulletin, Medical Management of Abortion; No. 67, October 2005

27. Meich R. Pathophysiology of mifepristone-induced septic shock due to Clostridium sordellii. Ann Pharmacother 2005;39:xxxx. Published online, 26 Jul 2005, www.theannals.com

28. Rock, J and Thompson J; TeLinde’s Operative Gynecology, 1997; 8th edition Lippincott-Raven.

29. ACOG Patient Education Bulletin, Dilatation and Curettage; December 2005

30. Rock, J and Thompson J; TeLinde’s Operative Gynecology, 1997; 8th edition Lippincott-Raven.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid.

33. Katz Comprehensive Gynecology, 5th Edition, 2007 Mosby-Elsevier

34. Rooney B, Calhoun B. Induced abortion and risk of later premature births. Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons 2003; 8(2):46-49.

35. Ancel P, et al. History of induced abortion as a risk factor for preterm birth in European countries: results of the EUROPOP survey. Human Reproduction 2004; 19 (3)734-760.

36. Behrman, R and Stith Butler A. Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention 2006. Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science.

37. Swingle HM, et al. Abortion and the risk of subsequent preterm birth, a systematic review with meta-analyses. J of Repro Med 2009 Feb; 54(2):95-108.

38. MacMahon, et al. Age at first birth and breast cancer risk. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1970. 43:209-221.

39. Trichopoulos, D, et al. Age at any birth and breast cancer risk. Int J of Cancer 1983; 31:701-704.

40. Carroll, P. The breast cancer epidemic: modeling and forecasts based on abortion and other risk factors. J of Am Physicians and Surgeons. 2007; Vol 12(3).

41. Daling, J, et al. Risk of breast cancer among young women: relationship to induced abortion. J of the Natl Cancer Institute, November 1994; Vol 86(21).

42. Dolle J; Daling J; White E; Brinton L, et al. Risk factors for triple-negative breast cancer in women under the age of 45 years. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009 Apr; 18(4):1157-66.

43. Hsieh C-c, et al. Delivery of premature newborns and maternal breast-cancer risk. Lancet. 1999; 353-1239.

44. Melbye M., et al. Preterm delivery and risk of breast cancer. Bristish J of Cancer. 1999; 80:609-613.

45. Brind, J. Induced abortion as an independent risk factor for breast cancer: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis. J of Epidemiology and Community Health. 1996; 50:481-496.

46. Thorp JM, Shadigian E, et al. Long term physical and psychological health consequences of induced abortion: review of the evidence. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey; 2003; 58(1):67-79.

47. Templeton S-K, “Royal College Warns Abortion Can Lead to Mental Illness,” The Sunday Times, March 16, 2008, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/health/article3559486.ece (Accessed June 16, 2008); “Position Statement on Women’s Mental Health in Relation to Induced Abortion,” March 14, 2008, Royal College of Psychiatrists, http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/members/currentissues/mentalhealthandabortion.aspx (Accessed June 16, 2008).

48. Cougle JR, et al. Depression associated with abortion and childbirth: a long-term analysis of the NLSY cohort. Med Science Monitor 2003; 9(4):105-112.d

49. Fergusson DM, et al. Abortion in young women and subsequent mental health. J of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2006; 47(1):16-24.

50. Coleman P, Reardon D, Rue V. Prior history of induced abortion in relation to substance use during subsequent pregnancies carried to term. Am J of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2002; 187:1673-78.

51. Coleman PK, et al. Predictors and correlates of abortion in the fragile families and well-being study: paternal behavior, substance use, and partner violence. Int J Ment Health Addiction 2008.

52. Thorp JM, Shadigian E, et al. Long term physical and psychological health consequences of induced abortion: review of the evidence.

53. Rue VM, et al. Induced abortion and traumatic stress: a preliminary comparison of American and Russian women. Medical Science Monitor 2004; 10:5-16.

54. DM, et al. Reactions to abortion and subsequent mental health. Brit J Psych 2009;

55. Yang C-Y. Association between parity and risk of suicide among parous women. Can Med Assoc J Apr 2010; 182; 569-572.

56. Reardon DC, Shuping MW, et al. Deaths associated with abortion compared to childbirth: a review of old and new data and the medical and legal implications. J of Contemporary Health Law and Policy; 2004; 20(2):279-327

57. Gissler M, et al. Suicides after pregnancy in Finland: 1987-1994: register linkage study. British Medical Journal 1996; 313:1431-4.d

58. Shadigian EM et al. Pregnancy-associated death: a qualitative systematic review of homicide and suicide. Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey 2005; 60(3):183

Other Sources:
http://www.lawnix.com/cases/roe-wade.html
http://abortionpillrisks.org/health-risks/deaths/ ( 7/25/2012)
www.abortionbreastcancer.com/The_Link.htm
Breast Cancer Prevention Institute (Fact Sheets) www.bcpinstitute.com
www.marchofdimes.com › Baby (January 2009/April 2010)
http://www.abortionbreastcancer.com/press_releases/110117/index.htm
http://www.lifenews.com/2011/07/12/new-fda-report-abortion-drug-kills-14-women-injures-2200/ (April 30, 2011 by Food and Drug Administration)
http://afterabortion.org/2005/cdc-abortion-mortality-reports-flawed-new-study-and-head-of-cdcs-admission/ (9/9/2005)
http://cnsnews.com/news/article/fda-issues-health-warning-after-reports-abortion-pill-deaths (reported by CNSNews.com> on 7/7/2008)

ABOUT FETAL DEVELOPMENT

fetal development

Fetal Development – Pregnancy – Anatomy and Physiology

Early pregnancy symptoms vary woman to woman, but what your early pregnancy signs are caused by fetal development within your womb.

Symptoms:
During the first trimester, some women may not feel any changes at all due to fetal development. They suspect a pregnancy because of a missed menstrual period. However, most women will feel some of the symptoms listed below:

FETAL DEVELOPMENT – FIRST TRIMESTER: months 1, 2, and 3

  • Fatigue
  • Breast enlargement
  • Increased urination
  • Indigestion and vomiting (associated with “morning sickness” which can happen any time during the day or night)
  • Increased appetite

 

Pregnancy Changes
If sperm are present around the time of ovulation, fertilization of the released egg (ovum) can occur. The sperm swims towards the ovum in the fallopian tube. Fertilization is the joining of the ovum and sperm to form one cell. Conception occurs with the fertilization of an ovum by sperm. Normally, fertilization takes place within the fallopian tube.

Fertilization is the initial process in the development of a new human being at its earliest stage. Even at this stage of human development, all the genetic information and instructions necessary for growth are present. A genetically-unique cell contains all the information for what this person will ever be. For example, at conception these characteristics have already been determined: hair and eye color, the sex, intelligence, personality type, body build, future shoe size, as well as any inheritable disease.

As the fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube towards the uterus, it continues to divide and grow. By approximately day six of development, it reaches the cavity of the uterus.

The uterine lining (endometrium) is thick and prepared for the fertilized egg to attach and embed itself. This process is called implantation. Afterwards, the placenta develops along with the umbilical cord through which the developing baby receives nutrients and oxygen and eliminates waste.

Month 1
The head and body, including arms and legs begin to form. By day 23 to 25, the heart is beating.

1 month old baby

Month 2 During this time, all internal organs are formed. Fingers become recognizable along with the eyes. The spine and major joints can move. Brain waves can be detected. By the 8th week, the fetus is approximately one inch long.


3 month old babyMonth 3 Facial structures, such as the eyes, nose, ears, and mouth can clearly be seen. Fingerprints as well as soft nails on the fingers and toes develop. There is more coordination in muscle movements. The lungs continue to mature. By the end of the first trimester, the sex organs develop and the fetus is approximately 4 inches long.

 

FETAL DEVELOPMENT – SECOND TRIMESTER-Months 4, 5, and 6

Symptoms

  • Continued breast enlargement and yellow liquid (colostrum) may leak from the nipples
  • Quickening or initial movement (kick) of baby felt by the mother
  • Emotional lability (mood swings)
  • Increased abdominal size due to enlarging uterus.

4th month baby developmentMonth 4 During this month, the body parts are fully formed with a strong heartbeat. The ears are functioning. Also, the fetus is kicking, sleeping, and swallowing. The fetus has grown and is about 6 to 7 inches long.

5 month baby developmentMonth 5 The baby becomes very active; mothers can feel kicking movements. Also, there is a rapid growth with the baby reaching about 12 inches in length. In about four months, your baby will be full term and ready for delivery.

6 month gestation ageMonth 6The baby’s skin is covered with fine hairs and a substance that protects it. By the end of this month, the baby can measure up to 14 inches long.

FETAL DEVELOPMENT – THIRD TRIMESTER-Months 7, 8, and 9

Symptoms

  • Low back pain
  • Continued movements of baby that can be seen and felt on the belly
  • Mild swelling of ankles and heartburn
  • Abdomen becomes firm to touch
  • Continued fatigue
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Painless contractions (Braxton-Hicks)

7th month gestational ageMonth 7 The baby can open and close the eyes as well as suck his/her thumb and hiccup. There is more activity such as kicking and stretching. All senses are continuing to mature-the baby can hear and respond to sounds.

8th month gestational ageMonth 8 The baby reaches length of up to 18 inches. Sleep and wake cycles occur regularly. The skin begins to thicken as the fat layer increases. The brain is increasing in size also.

Month 9 through delivery The baby will begin to move downward, headfirst, into the mother’s pelvis. By now, the lungs have developed and are preparing to breathe air. By the end of the third trimester, the baby weighs between six and nine pounds. Get ready for labor and delivery!

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Source:
Before You Decide – An Abortion Education Resource. Sterling VA: Care Net, 2002.

Scott JR, DiSaia PJ, Hammond CB, Spellacy WN. Danforth’s Obstetrics & Gynecology, 8th Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

What is Conception?

Learn About Conception

Conception occurs when ovulation, which is when a mature egg is released from the ovary, pushed down the fallopian tube, and is available to be fertilized by sperm released by the male during intercourse.

(* Source: Real Fertilization Process)

What Is Ovulation?

Learn more about Ovulation!

Approximately every month an egg will mature within one of your ovaries.

As it reaches maturity, the egg is released by the ovary where it enters the fallopian tube to make its way towards waiting for sperm and the uterus.

The lining of the uterus has thickened to prepare for the fertilized egg. If no conception occurs, the uterine lining, as well as blood, will be shed. The shedding of an unfertilized egg and the uterine wall is the time of menstruation.

What is Conception?

Conception is the time after you ovulate and sperm meets the egg! Sperm can live 3-5 days. So you might have sex on day 10th, but might not ovulate till 13th, so conception would be on or just after 13th.

The only way to have an accurate idea of when you conceived is to know the date that you ovulated during the cycle in which you got pregnant. You can determine the date of ovulation with around 96% accuracy by measuring your cervical mucus according to the Creighton Model (http://www.creightonmodel.com/).

Your egg will live less then 48 hours if not fertilized, so once you determine the ovulation date, you can be confident that you conceived within 48 hours. However, sperm can survive in your system for around 5 days.

If, for example, you had sex on August 1st, and ovulated on August 4th, it is possible to conceive on August 4th or 5th. If you ovulate on August 4th and have sex on August 5th, you may conceive on August 5th (+ a few hours into the 6th maybe). Calculating the due date based on menstruation is about a 2 weeks accurate because the number of days between menstruation and ovulation varies between a woman’s cycles.

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What is Ovulation?

What is Ovulation?

Ovulation is the release of a mature egg (ovum) from the ovarian follicle.

View a helpful video
(*Source: Nucleus Medicine )

Each menstrual cycle, several ovarian follicles begin to mature and develop under the influence of pituitary hormones. Usually, only one follicle develops fully. While the other follicles recede, this dominant follicle produces an egg which will be released and which can be fertilized. The growing follicle secretes increasing amounts of the hormone estrogen. Following peak estrogen production, there is a surge of luteinizing hormone (LH). The LH surge triggers the release of the mature egg from its follicle. This is the process that starts the possibility of becoming pregnant. If you think you may be pregnant, you may want to take our free pregnancy probability test.

After you Ovulate

Once ovulated, the egg is picked up by one of the fallopian tubes and begins to travel towards the uterus in the fallopian tube. This is where fertilization if it is to happen, takes place. The follicle that released the egg becomes known as the corpus luteum after ovulation and begins to secrete the heat-inducing hormone, progesterone.

The lifespan of the egg after ovulation is just 12-24 hours, maybe even less. Fertilization must take place within this timeframe. After this timeframe, the egg begins to degenerate and is no longer capable of being fertilized. This seems like a very short window of time for conception to take place. However, sperm deposited prior to ovulation can survive in the female reproductive tract for a few days, so the few days before ovulation takes place are also considered fertile days.

Learn more about CONCEPTION

What is O

Learn about Pregnancy

pregnancy

Fetal Development – Pregnancy – Anatomy and Physiology

If sperm are present around the time of ovulation, fertilization of the released egg (ovum) or pregnancy can occur.
FETAL DEVELOPMENT – FIRST TRIMESTER: months 1, 2, and 3
Symptoms:
During the first trimester, some women may not feel any changes at all. They suspect a pregnancy because of a missed menstrual period. However, most women will feel some of the symptoms listed below:

  • Fatigue
  • Breast enlargement
  • Increased urination
  • Indigestion and vomiting (associated with “morning sickness” which can happen any time during the day or night)
  • Increased appetite

 

Pregnancy Changes
If sperm are present around the time of ovulation, fertilization of the released egg (ovum) can occur. The sperm swims towards the ovum in the fallopian tube. Fertilization is the joining of the ovum and sperm to form one cell. Conception occurs with the fertilization of an ovum by sperm. Normally, fertilization takes place within the fallopian tube.

Fertilization is the initial process in the development of a new human being at its earliest stage. Even at this stage of human development, all the genetic information and instructions necessary for growth are present. A genetically-unique cell contains all the information for what this person will ever be. For example, at conception these characteristics have already been determined: hair and eye color, the sex, intelligence, personality type, body build, future shoe size, as well as any inheritable disease.

As the fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube towards the uterus, it continues to divide and grow. By approximately day six of development, it reaches the cavity of the uterus.

The uterine lining (endometrium) is thick and prepared for the fertilized egg to attach and embed itself. This process is called implantation. Afterwards, the placenta develops along with the umbilical cord through which the developing baby receives nutrients and oxygen and eliminates waste.

Month 1
The head and body, including arms and legs begin to form. By day 23 to 25, the heart is beating.

1 month old baby

Month 2 During this time, all internal organs are formed. Fingers become recognizable along with the eyes. The spine and major joints can move. Brain waves can be detected. By the 8th week, the fetus is approximately one inch long.


3 month old babyMonth 3 Facial structures, such as the eyes, nose, ears, and mouth can clearly be seen. Fingerprints as well as soft nails on the fingers and toes develop. There is more coordination in muscle movements. The lungs continue to mature. By the end of the first trimester, the sex organs develop and the fetus is approximately 4 inches long.

 

FETAL DEVELOPMENT – SECOND TRIMESTER-Months 4, 5, and 6

Symptoms

  • Continued breast enlargement and yellow liquid (colostrum) may leak from the nipples
  • Quickening or initial movement (kick) of baby felt by the mother
  • Emotional lability (mood swings)
  • Increased abdominal size due to enlarging uterus.

4th month baby developmentMonth 4 During this month, the body parts are fully formed with a strong heartbeat. The ears are functioning. Also, the fetus is kicking, sleeping, and swallowing. The fetus has grown and is about 6 to 7 inches long.

5 month baby developmentMonth 5 The baby becomes very active; mothers can feel kicking movements. Also, there is a rapid growth with the baby reaching about 12 inches in length. In about four months, your baby will be full term and ready for delivery.

6 month gestation ageMonth 6The baby’s skin is covered with fine hairs and a substance that protects it. By the end of this month, the baby can measure up to 14 inches long.

FETAL DEVELOPMENT – THIRD TRIMESTER-Months 7, 8, and 9

Symptoms

  • Low back pain
  • Continued movements of baby that can be seen and felt on the belly
  • Mild swelling of ankles and heartburn
  • Abdomen becomes firm to touch
  • Continued fatigue
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Painless contractions (Braxton-Hicks)

7th month gestational ageMonth 7 The baby can open and close the eyes as well as suck his/her thumb and hiccup. There is more activity such as kicking and stretching. All senses are continuing to mature-the baby can hear and respond to sounds.

8th month gestational ageMonth 8 The baby reaches length of up to 18 inches. Sleep and wake cycles occur regularly. The skin begins to thicken as the fat layer increases. The brain is increasing in size also.

Month 9 through delivery The baby will begin to move downward, headfirst, into the mother’s pelvis. By now, the lungs have developed and are preparing to breathe air. By the end of the third trimester, the baby weighs between six and nine pounds. Get ready for labor and delivery!

askforinfo

Source:
Before You Decide – An Abortion Education Resource. Sterling VA: Care Net, 2002.

Scott JR, DiSaia PJ, Hammond CB, Spellacy WN. Danforth’s Obstetrics & Gynecology, 8th Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999.